The genetic integrity of the spermatozoan is essential for normal embryo development. A high level of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells may represent a cause of male infertility that conventional examinations - sperm concentration, motility analysis, morphology assessment - cannot detect.
Embryos derived from sperm whose DNA is highly fragmented have a poor prognosis. Evidence suggests that this could result in initiation of apoptosis and mutations resulting in blastocyst arrest, miscarriage, abnormalities in the offspring and an increased susceptibility to childhood cancer. Protection against high DNA fragmentation may be afforded by younger oocytes which are much more efficient at DNA repair of defective sperm than older oocytes.
Initial reports suggest that DNA damage occurs at the post-testicular level, so that testicular sperm may have a healthier DNA integrity than ejaculated sperm. Furthermore, studies show that ICSI may be a more effective treatment than IVF for sperm with a high DNA fragmentation.
When % DFI is above 25 %, current literature suggests that the patient either try to reduce the DFI by medical intervention or change of lifestyle, or skipping IUI and go on to IVF ICSI for greatest success
Hypothesis: A high ratio of moderate DFI to high DFI sperm may be the most negative since moderate DFI sperm have normal nuclear morphology and will likely fertilise but may have DNA damage beyond the repair capacity of eggs.
High DNA stainability (HDS): % sperm with immature chromatin and abnormal proteins. Levels in the > 25% range are considered negative for pregnancy outcome