Vertical transmission, defined as infection of the fetus from the maternal host, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. In some cases, bacterial, viral and parasitic infections induce dire outcomes in the fetus.
A catheter containing the embryos is used to gently place them into the uterus (womb). Women may feel mild cramping when the catheter is inserted through the cervix or they may have vaginal spotting (slight bleeding) afterward. Very rarely, an infection may develop, which can usually be treated with antibiotics.